Hedonic Adaptation And Scam Victims Finding Happiness – 2024

Hedonic Adaptation And Scam Victims Finding Happiness

Hedonic Adaptation: Understanding the Stability of Happiness and the Path to Lasting Contentment

Primary Category: Scam Victim Recovery

Author:
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

Hedonic adaptation, often called the hedonic treadmill, is the psychological phenomenon where people return to a baseline level of happiness despite significant positive or negative changes in their lives. This concept suggests that while new circumstances can initially alter one’s emotional state, people quickly become accustomed to these changes, leading their overall happiness to stabilize over time.

Both positive events, like promotions or new relationships, and negative events, like job losses or breakups, see initial emotional spikes or dips, but eventually, Read More …

The Similarity/Attraction Theory And Relationship Scams – 2024

The Similarity/Attraction Theory And Relationship Scams

Another Example of How Our Own Psychology Heavily Influences Our Susceptibility to be Deceived!

Primary Category: Psychology of Scams

Authors:
•  Vianey Gonzalez B.Sc(Psych) – Psychologist, Certified Deception Professional, Psychology Advisory Panel & Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

The Similarity/Attraction Theory posits that individuals are drawn to others who share similar characteristics, such as attitudes, values, interests, and backgrounds, creating a sense of comfort and predictability. This theory is linked to cognitive biases like confirmation bias, in-group bias, homophily, stereotyping, the halo effect, and similarity bias, that reinforce our natural preference for similar others.

Scammers exploit these biases in trust-based relationship scams by fabricating similarities to establish credibility and manipulate victims. By creating a sense of familiarity and emotional connection, scammers gain Read More …

Do The Fake Names Scammers Use Play A Role In Luring In Victims? 2024

Do The Fake Names Scammers Use Play A Role In Luring In Victims?

Do Names Play a Significant Role in Aiding Luring and Grooming of Scam Victims?

Primary Category: Psychology of Scams

Authors:
•  Vianey Gonzalez B.Sc(Psych) – Psychologist, Certified Deception Professional, Psychology Advisory Panel & Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

Common names make it easier for scammers to lure victims because they evoke familiarity and trust. Familiar names like “John,” “Michael,” “Sarah,” or “Emily” reduce initial skepticism and increase engagement since they are associated with real-life individuals the victim might know.

This sense of normalcy helps scammers blend in, making their fake personas appear legitimate and trustworthy. Additionally, common names are easier to remember and pronounce, which enhances communication and rapport building.

Read Read More …

Scam Victim Psychological Trauma And Weight Gain – 2024

Scam Victim Weight Gain And Psychological Trauma

The Somatic (Physical) Effects of Psychological Trauma are many and most of them are bad!

Primary Category: Psychological Trauma

Authors:
•  Vianey Gonzalez B.Sc(Psych) – Psychologist, Certified Deception Professional, Psychology Advisory Panel & Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

Psychological trauma, an emotional response to intensely distressing events, profoundly impacts both the mind and body. Originating from incidents such as crimes, accidents, or prolonged abuse, trauma triggers the “fight-or-flight” response, releasing stress hormones like adrenaline and cortisol.

While adaptive in acute scenarios, chronic activation of this response leads to significant health issues, including cardiovascular problems, metabolic disturbances, and immune system compromise.

Elevated cortisol levels result in increased fat storage, particularly visceral fat, and altered insulin production, promoting weight gain and insulin Read More …

Why Are We More Likely To Trust Total Strangers Now? 2024

Why Are We More Likely To Trust Total Strangers Now?

We were not always like this! Even 120 years ago, trusting did not come normally in society.

An Anthropological & Sociological Essay

Main Categories: Cognitive Biases / Anthropology / Sociology

Author:
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

The evolution of trust from cautiousness to openness towards strangers reflects a complex interplay of historical, cultural, and technological factors.

Initially spurred by post-pandemic euphoria and the Roaring Twenties’ optimism, trust eroded during World War II, rebounded briefly post-war, and waned again during the Cold War.

The Flower Generation challenged norms in the 1960s, fostering unity and trust.

The digital revolution accelerated trust normalization, facilitated by social media, e-commerce, and peer-to-peer economies.

Today, familiarity, social proof, and cognitive biases shape trust behaviors, despite vulnerabilities exploited by cybercriminals.

Balancing trust with vigilance is a survival Read More …

U.S. FBI’s IC3.gov Turns 24 Years Old! – 2024

U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation – FBI’s IC3.gov Turns 24 Years Old!

Since the very early days of the Internet (World Wide Web) the FBI has been collecting data and complaints on criminal behavior and helping victims get help!

Law Enforcement – FBI IC3 Internet Crime Complaint Center

Authors:
•  SCARS Editorial Team – Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.
•  Portions by ‘Inside the FBI Podcast’

About This Article

The Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3.gov), established by the FBI in May 2000, is a crucial platform for reporting internet-related crimes such as identity theft, online fraud, phishing, and ransomware. It collects, analyzes, and disseminates cybercrime data, helping identify patterns and emerging threats.

Beyond processing complaints, IC3 enhances public awareness and provides educational resources to prevent cybercrimes. It collaborates with various law enforcement agencies and partners globally to combat cybercrime effectively, making the digital environment safer.

Over its 24 years, IC3 has adapted to Read More …

Relearning Critical Thinking And To Think Skeptically – For Scam Victims After A Relationship Scam – 2024

Relearning Critical Thinking And To Think Skeptically – For Scam Victims After A Relationship Scam

Trauma is known to cause Cognitive Impairment and Brain Fog after the Scam Ends. Relearning Critical Thinking and Skepticism again are vital skills Scam Victims Need!

Scam Victim Recovery Psychology

Author:
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

Rebuilding critical thinking skills after becoming a victim of a relationship scam is essential to restoring a sense of control and trust in oneself. Scam victims often experience profound emotional trauma and cognitive impairment due to the manipulation tactics used by scammers.

Recognizing the impact of trauma on cognition is the first step toward recovery. Victims can use self-assessment tools, engage in mindfulness practices, and seek professional support to identify cognitive distortions and improve decision-making abilities.

Rebuilding skepticism and learning to question assumptions are crucial for protecting against future Read More …

Hollywood Effect – Romance Entitlement Vulnerability – Believing You Are Entitled To A Perfect Romantic Partner – 2024

Hollywood Effect – Romance Entitlement Vulnerability – Believing You Are Entitled To A Perfect Romantic Partner

Hollywood Effect/Disney Syndrome – Cognitive Biases play a giant role in all Scam Victims’ Vulnerabilities

Psychology of Scams

Author:
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

Victims of romance scams often fall prey to a unique vulnerability known as the ‘Hollywood Effect’ or ‘Disney Syndrome,’ where they harbor unrealistic expectations about finding the perfect partner, particularly in the realm of online dating. This cognitive bias, fueled by idealized portrayals of romance in media and popular culture, sets the stage for scammers to exploit individuals seeking their own fairy tale romance.

Because of this, victims overlook red flags and dismiss imperfections in pursuit of an idealized image of love, leaving them susceptible to manipulation and deception. Recognizing the signs of the Hollywood Effect is crucial for avoiding romance Read More …

Scam Victims: The Need To Tell Their Stories – The Need For Acceptance – 2024

Scam Victims: The Need To Tell Their Stories – The Need For Acceptance

Being Accepted is a Basic Primal Need we all have! When Scam Victims tell their Stories they Seek Acceptance, but there is a downside too!

Psychology of Scams

Author:
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

Victims of scams and other crimes often feel a primal need to tell their stories, seeking acceptance and validation from others. This act of sharing serves as a means of seeking connection, healing, and empowerment in the aftermath of trauma.

However, storytelling can also be manipulated by con artists to exploit vulnerabilities and perpetrate further deception.

Trauma survivors, in their search for understanding and meaning, may be susceptible to believing false stories and urban legends, further complicating their recovery journey.

Understanding the dual nature of storytelling is crucial in recognizing its role in both healing and Read More …

Language Scam Victim Danager: Never Date Someone When You Don’t Speak The Language Fluently – 2024

Language Scam Victim Danager: Never Date Someone When You Don’t Speak The Language Fluently

Another, little talked about Scam Victim Vulnerability is their Language!

Psychology of Scams

Author:
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

One of the unique victim vulnerabilities that can contribute to scams is actually the language itself.

Navigating relationships or engaging in conversations in a non-native language presents numerous challenges, particularly regarding memory encoding, cognitive overload, and vulnerability to deception. The brain’s capacity to process and comprehend language can become overwhelmed when confronted with the complexities of understanding a second language, leading to impaired memory retrieval and increased susceptibility to manipulation.

Memories formed in a secondary language may be less accessible when thinking in the first language, hindering awareness of past experiences and potential risks. This phenomenon underscores the importance of continued language exposure, proficiency development, and cognitive flexibility in Read More …

Labyrinth Walking and Spiral Walking Meditation for Scam Victims – 2024

Labyrinth Walking and Spiral Walking Meditation for Scam Victims

A Much Easier Form of Meditation for Scam Victims on their Journey of Recovery

Scam Victim Recovery Psychology

Authors:
•  Vianey Gonzalez B.Sc(Psych) – Psychologist, Certified Deception Professional, Psychology Advisory Panel & Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

Labyrinth walking and spiral walking provide scam victims with accessible and profound methods for managing trauma, reducing stress and anxiety, and promoting recovery. Unlike complex forms of meditation, these practices offer a tangible and straightforward approach to mindfulness.

Labyrinths, with their single winding path leading to the center and back, offer a focused journey inward, while spirals provide a continuous inward journey with no dead ends. Both can be created physically or imagined, allowing flexibility in practice.

Read More …

Learning And The Challenges That A Scam Victim Faces From Trauma And Related Cognitive Effects – 2024

Learning And The Challenges That Scam Victims Face From Trauma And Related Cognitive Effects

Often Scam Victims believe that the aftermath of a scam is just that their feelings are a little out of control, but the betrayal trauma from these crimes can lead to serious mind/brain dysregulation and impairment

Authors:
•  Vianey Gonzalez B.Sc(Psych) – Psychologist, Certified Deception Professional, Psychology Advisory Panel & Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

Scam victims often endure profound trauma due to the betrayal they experience, leading to significant psychological impacts. Recovery requires professional support, including psychological education and therapy.

Cognitive overload is common among victims, hindering their ability to learn. Learning involves encoding, consolidation, storage, and retrieval of information in the brain, influenced by neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity. Trauma affects learning styles, impairing concentration, Read More …

Being A Victim – Labeling Theory & What It Means For Victims Of Scams Or Anyone! – 2023 [UPDATED 2024]

Labeling Theory & What It Means For Victims Of Scams

When words evoke strong emotional responses they can mean many things, but most of them are not good. They can easily become triggers for unresolved and unmanaged trauma.

Authors:
• Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.
• Vianey Gonzalez – Psychologist, Certified Deception Professional, Psychology Advisory Panel & Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.
Originally published in 2023 – updated 2024

About This Article

Labeling someone as a victim is simply a descriptive term, but how they react to it can reveal a lot about their emotional state. Some may accept it easily, while others might feel deeply ashamed, guilty, or even proud.

This internalization can lead to what’s called a victim mentality, where a person constantly sees themselves as helpless and blames others for their Read More …

Global Law Enforcement Collaboration Takes Down ‘LabHost’ Phishing-As-A-Service Platform – 2024

Global Law Enforcement Collaboration Takes Down ‘LabHost’ Phishing-As-A-Service Platform

The Takedown of the LabHost Platform is a Major Step in Reducing Phishing Scams

Authors:
•  SCARS Editorial Team – Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.
•  Portions from Europol and UK Metropolitan Police

About This Article

Law enforcement agencies from 19 countries collaborated in a year-long operation to disrupt ‘LabHost,’ one of the world’s largest phishing-as-a-service platforms. Coordinated by Europol, the operation resulted in the compromise of LabHost’s infrastructure and the initial arrest of 37 suspects, with the potential for as many as 1,000 more arrests.

LabHost facilitated phishing attacks on users of hundreds of financial institutions worldwide for a monthly subscription fee. The platform, previously available on the open web, has been shut down following the investigation.

Read More …

UK Government: Social and Psychological Implications of Fraud – 2024

UK Government: Social and Psychological Implications of Fraud

Psychology of Scams

Authors:
•  UK Parliament – Government of the United Kingdom
•  SCARS Editorial Team – Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

Fraud poses a significant threat to the UK, with 4 in 10 offences targeting individuals. The government’s 2023 Fraud Strategy aims to combat this, emphasizing victim support and prevention.

While stereotypes of elderly victims persist, fraud risks vary due to psychological and social factors. Beyond financial loss, fraud inflicts emotional and psychological harm.

Victims often report fraud to banks rather than authorities. Effective prevention strategies involve education and enhanced victim care. This POSTnote underscores the multifaceted nature of fraud and the need for comprehensive, collaborative approaches to mitigate its impact on individuals in England and Wales.

Read More …

Psychological Trauma Or PTSD And Chronic Headaches And Migraines – 2024

Psychological Trauma Or PTSD And Chronic Headaches And Migraines

Understanding the relationship between Trauma and Physiological Effects such as Chronic Headaches or Migraines on Scam Victims

Solmatic & Physical Effects on Scam Victims

Author:
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

The intricate connection between PTSD or psychological trauma and chronic headaches or migraines highlights the profound impact these conditions have on individuals’ lives, particularly those who have experienced significant psychological trauma.

While stress headaches, also known as tension headaches, are prevalent worldwide, affecting up to 80% of adults and children at some point in their lives, trauma-related headaches present distinct challenges. Trauma-induced headaches, often observed in individuals with PTSD, may manifest as migraines, tension headaches, or other types of headaches, exacerbating cognitive impairment or brain fog.

Psychological distress and emotional dysregulation commonly associated with trauma-related headaches can further impair cognitive function, making it Read More …

A Desperate Scam Victim – Ann Mayers – Becomes A Bank Robber – 2024 [VIDEOS]

A Desperate Scam Victim – Ann Mayers – Becomes A Bank Robber

Ann Mayers, a Scam Victim lost her life savings and borrowed over $80,000 which she still owed. Out of Desperation, she decided to become a Bank Robber

However, the story is not as simple as it seems due to the trauma and cognitive impairment victims suffer from

Authors:
•  SCARS Editorial Team – Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.
•  Portions WLWT5 News and other sources

About This Article

Ann Mayers, a 74-year-old Ohio woman, turned to bank robbery in desperation after falling victim to an online scam.

Police responded to a robbery at AurGroup Credit Union, where Mayers demanded cash at gunpoint. She was later found at her home and confessed to the crime, admitting recent financial losses to an unidentified online scammer. Mayers faces charges of aggravated robbery and tampering with evidence, highlighting the tragic consequences of online scams.

Such scams often Read More …

The Tragic Story Of Laura Kowal – A Romance Scam Victim Who Died Possibly At The Hands Of The Ghana/Nigerian Scammers – 2024 – [Videos]

The Tragic Story Of Laura Kowal

A Romance Scam Victim Who Died Possibly At The Hands Of The Ghana Scammers Who Controlled Here!

A Not Uncommon Case of a Romance Scam Victim Who loses Everything and then becomes a Money Mule for Ghana Scammers

Authors:
•  SCARS Editorial Team – Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.
•  Portions CBS News and other sources

About This Article

Laura Kowal’s tragic story sheds light on the devastating impact of romance scams, where victims like her become enslaved by expert criminals, leading to dire consequences. Laura, a widow seeking companionship, fell victim to a scam orchestrated by individuals masquerading as her online lover, ‘Frank Borg.’

Despite initial feelings of romance and excitement, Laura eventually became a money mule for Ghana scammers, after ultimately losing $1.5 million.

Mysteriously, she was found drowned in a river, raising suspicions of foul play. Her daughter, Kelly Gowe, tirelessly seeks answers, highlighting the manipulative Read More …

Residual Fear In Scam Victims – 2024

Residual Fear In Scam Victims

Helping Scam Victims to Understand Residual or Chronic Fear that can remain with them

Scam Victim Recovery Psychology

Authors:
•  Vianey Gonzalez B.Sc(Psych) – Psychologist, Certified Deception Professional, Psychology Advisory Panel & Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

After falling victim to a scam, scam victims often grapple with a multitude of fears, both rational and irrational, which are fueled by trauma, grief, shame, and self-blame. These fears, whether imagined or grounded in reality, are profoundly impactful and valid for the victims experiencing them.

Residual fear manifests in various forms, such as the fear of recurrence, vulnerability, trusting others, loss of control, emotional consequences, social stigma, and retaliation. Such fears can persist long after the initial shock of the scam, affecting victims’ daily lives, relationships, and overall Read More …

Scam Victim Resistance In Support Groups Therapy Or Counseling Can Destroy Opportunities For Recovery – 2024

Scam Victim Resistance In Support Groups Therapy Or Counseling Can Destroy Opportunities For Recovery

Helping Scam Victims Better Understand one of the Self-Created Barriers to their Recovery

Author:
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

This article examines the complicated topic of resistance in scam victims within or to therapy and support groups, exploring its challenges and consequences. It emphasizes the difficulty of discussing resistance due to its association with judgment and criticism.

Victims may resist addressing their trauma, fearing shame, judgment, or loss of control. However, understanding and overcoming resistance are crucial for healing and recovery. We distinguish between support groups and therapy, highlighting their respective focuses and structures. It warns against viewing support groups solely as social gatherings, as this may hinder healing.

Read More …

Anxiety And Mindfulness – A Tool For Scam Victims – 2024 – [VIDEOS]

Anxiety And Mindfulness – A Tool For Scam Victims

Helping Scam Victims/Survivors to Understand Mindfulness Techniques to Aid in their Recovery

Author:
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.
•  Based on the work of Dr. Ron Siegel and others

About This Article

In the aftermath of falling victim to scams, fear and anxiety often haunt scam survivors, hindering their peace of mind and emotional well-being. However, Mindfulness serves as a potent tool for scam victims, offering solace and empowerment amidst adversity.

Trauma expert Dr. Ron Siegel emphasizes that mindfulness practices provide a simple yet profound antidote to anxiety, guiding individuals to embrace the present moment and cultivate resilience. By grounding themselves in present-moment awareness, scam victims can confront fear and anxiety with compassion and equanimity, reclaiming agency over their emotional landscape.

Read More …

Cruel Or Indifferent To Suffering – What Scammers Do And Why It Is So Important For Scam Victims To Understand – 2024

Cruel Or Indifferent To Suffering

What Scammers Do And Why It Is So Important For Scam Victims To Understand

Author:
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

In understanding the dynamics of romance or other scams and their impact on victims, distinguishing between cruelty and indifference is crucial. Perpetrators of scams often operate from a place of indifference, lacking empathy rather than exhibiting personal animosity toward their victims. This realization is pivotal for victims, as it helps depersonalize the crime, reclaim their sense of agency, and access the support needed for recovery.

Overcoming indifference requires proactive steps, including cultivating empathy, expressing gratitude, educating oneself, and taking meaningful action to combat social injustices. By focusing on empathy, compassion, and understanding, society can create a safer and more supportive environment for all individuals affected by scams.

Recognizing the distinction between cruelty and indifference empowers victims Read More …

Unbelievable Story Of A U.S. Military Soldier Sanda G. Frimpong Involved In A Romance Scam Gang – 2024

Unbelievable Story Of A U.S. Military Soldier Sanda G. Frimpong Involved In A Romance Scam Gang

A U.S. Soldier from Ghana becomes a real romance scam gang member

Author:
•  SCARS Editorial Team – Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

Former U.S. Army soldier Sanda G. Frimpong, formerly stationed at Fort Bragg, has been sentenced to 40 months in federal prison for his involvement in a money laundering romance scam targeting vulnerable individuals, including seniors and military veterans, from 2019 to 2022. Frimpong, 33, pleaded guilty to three counts of money laundering in exchange for the dismissal of multiple charges, including wire fraud and identity theft.

His fraudulent activities, which included impersonating romantic partners and military personnel, resulted in the laundering of hundreds of thousands of dollars through various bank accounts and contacts in Ghana.

Read More …

Emmanuel Kant And The Morality Of Scams – An Essay – 2024

Emmanuel Kant And The Morality Of Scams

An Essay about Moral Duty and Scams

Philosophy of Scams

Author:
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

In the work we do of scam victim advocacy and support, Emmanuel Kant’s philosophy can play an important role in guiding our approach to understanding and addressing the moral complexities inherent in scams and their aftermath. Kantian ethics, with its emphasis on universalizability, respect for autonomy, duty-based morality, and rationality, provides valuable insights into the ethical dimensions of relationship scams and the experiences of scam victims.

Of course, scammers violate Kant’s principles by treating victims as mere means to an end, exploiting their vulnerabilities, and undermining their autonomy. As victims navigate their recovery process, Kantian ethics underscores their moral duty to prioritize self-care, seek justice, respect their autonomy, engage in rational reflection, and educate others about the dangers Read More …

Multitasking Creates Scam Victim Vulnerabilities – 2024

Multitasking Creates Scam Victim Vulnerabilities

The Process of Multitasking Divides Our Attention and Dramatically Increases Vulnerability

Psychology of Scams

Authors:
•  Vianey Gonzalez B.Sc(Psych) – Psychologist, Certified Deception Professional, Psychology Advisory Panel & Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.
•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

In today’s modern era, multitasking has become ubiquitous, driven by technological advancements and societal shifts. While initially seen as a means to enhance productivity, research has revealed its detrimental effects on cognitive function and decision-making.

The concept of multitasking emerged in the latter 20th century, coinciding with the rise of personal computers and communication technology facilitating concurrent task performance. Its prevalence increased with the advent of smartphones and other mobile devices, embedding multitasking deeper into daily routines.

Read More …