The Zeigarnik Effect On Mind And Perception – Have You Ever Noticed? Strange Qualities Of Perception After A Scam!

A Cognitive Bias connected to many Detrimental Effects in Scam Victims

The Zeigarnik Effect is one of the Most Fundamental Cognitive Biases that most have never heard of!

•  Tim McGuinness, Ph.D. – Anthropologist, Scientist, Director of the Society of Citizens Against Relationship Scams Inc.

About This Article

The Zeigarnik Effect, a cognitive bias identified by Bluma Zeigarnik, intensifies the distress of scam victims by perpetuating intrusive thoughts and emotional turmoil.

Following a scam, victims obsessively ruminate on unresolved questions and the perpetrator, fueled by a relentless pursuit of closure. Scammers exploit this bias, manipulating victims through emotional attachment and inducing impulsive actions.

In phishing scams, the Zeigarnik Effect triggers impulsive behavior as individuals seek resolution to unanswered questions. Recognizing this effect is crucial for understanding victim experiences and providing effective support.

Strategies such as mindfulness and seeking professional help can mitigate its impact, empowering victims to regain control and embark on a path to healing.

The Zeigarnik Effect On Mind And Perception - Have You Ever Noticed? A Cognitive Bias - 2024

Zeigarnik Effect: After the Scam is Over, Scam Victims’ Minds Respond in Strange and Unusual Ways!

Let’s Look at Perceptions that can result from being a Scam Victim – one of them is the Zeigarnik Effect – an Unusual Cognitive Bias

Cognitive Biases such as the Zeigarnik Effect demonstrate clearly how our minds are complex beyond understanding at times, and at times our perceptions and thoughts respond in ways beyond our control. Sometimes these perceptual effects or biases can be benign, sometimes even funny, but at other times very frightening, increasing anxiety.

The Zeigarnik Effect: The Constant Reminder!

Have you ever noticed when you are interested in something you become more attuned to seeing similar things? This happens a lot with cars. When you are thinking about buying a specific car, it seems like everyone is driving one of them. That is not really the case but our mind controls our perceptions and makes it appear that it is so because of a bias that keeps us focused (without knowing it) on specific things, tasks, etc. This is an example of the Zeigarnik Effect.

The same effect can happen to scam victims. After the scam, when they spent weeks, months, or years focused on a single face, on a relationship, and a set of beliefs, the mind can prioritize perception to see it or think about it constantly. Not only is this a prioritization of looking for it, but the mind can invent or imagine it when the physical characteristics are a general match. Or worse, even when there is no match, the mind can cause us to see it.

The phenomenon we are referring to is called the “Zeigarnik Effect” – an unusual cognitive bias.

This effect is related to the tendency to remember uncompleted or interrupted tasks more than completed tasks. While not directly related to visual patterns, it’s another cognitive phenomenon that demonstrates how once our attention is drawn to something, it’s hard to forget or “un-see” it.

The Zeigarnik Effect: Understanding Its Impact on Scam Victims

In the intricate psychology of human beings, certain phenomena have a unique power over our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, shaping our perceptions of the world around us, these include cognitive bias, some of which as strictly thought-controlled, and others affect our very neurology.

One such phenomenon is the Zeigarnik Effect—a cognitive bias that sheds light on our tendency to remember incomplete or interrupted tasks, actions, or occurrences more vividly than those we have completed and then can cause us to image them in unusual ways.

First identified by Russian psychologist Bluma Zeigarnik in the early 20th century, the Zeigarnik Effect has since captivated researchers and practitioners alike, offering profound insights into the workings of human memory and motivation. At its core, this phenomenon underscores our brain’s propensity to prioritize unfinished business, compelling us to seek closure and resolution.

The Zeigarnik Effect operates on the premise that incomplete tasks, events, relationships, or occurrences create a state of cognitive tension or “mental itch,” prompting us to devote mental resources toward achieving closure. This heightened state of arousal serves as a potent motivator, driving us to return to the task at hand until it is satisfactorily completed. In essence, the Zeigarnik Effect highlights the profound impact of unresolved experiences on our cognitive processes and emotional well-being.

The Zeigarnik Effect: Evolutionary Purpose

The Zeigarnik Effect likely evolved as a cognitive mechanism to prioritize and manage tasks that are important for survival and reproduction. In ancestral environments, where resources were scarce and threats were abundant, efficient task management and problem-solving skills were needed for survival. The Zeigarnik Effect may have provided several evolutionary advantages:

  • Enhanced Memory Encoding: The Zeigarnik Effect promotes the encoding of incomplete or unresolved tasks, actions, activities, or even relationships into long-term memory. This heightened retention of unfinished business would have allowed early humans to maintain awareness of critical objectives, such as hunting prey, gathering food, or building shelter, ensuring that these tasks remained at the forefront of their attention until successfully completed.
  • Motivational Drive: The tension created by unresolved tasks under the Zeigarnik Effect likely served as a motivational force, compelling individuals to take action and pursue goals until they were satisfactorily achieved. This heightened motivation would have been beneficial for overcoming obstacles, adapting to changing environments, and maximizing opportunities for survival and reproductive success.
  • Adaptive Problem-Solving: The Zeigarnik Effect encourages individuals to focus their cognitive resources on resolving unfinished tasks, leading to more efficient problem-solving and decision-making. By maintaining a heightened state of alertness and vigilance regarding unresolved issues, early humans could respond rapidly to emerging challenges, exploit opportunities for resource acquisition, and mitigate potential threats to their well-being. However, it can also have a maladaptive side as well by forcing looping thoughts about an unresolved situation or activity, potentially to obsession.
  • Social Coordination: In social contexts, the Zeigarnik Effect may have facilitated collaboration and cooperation among group members by ensuring that individuals remained engaged in collective tasks and responsibilities. By maintaining a shared awareness of unfinished business within the group, early humans could coordinate their efforts more effectively, allocate resources efficiently, and achieve common objectives with greater success.

The Zeigarnik Effect likely conferred significant evolutionary benefits by promoting efficient task management, enhancing motivation and problem-solving abilities, and facilitating social coordination and cooperation among ancestral humans. These adaptive advantages would have contributed to the survival and reproductive success of individuals and groups in challenging and dynamic environments. However, it today’s world, these beneficial qualities can easily work against us.

Zeigarnik Effect: During the Relationship Scam

During a relationship scam (such as a romance scam or even a crypto investment fraud,) the Zeigarnik Effect can play a significant role in the manipulation and control of victims by scammers.

Here’s how that works:

  • Creating Unfinished Business: Scammers often use incomplete or unresolved interactions to keep victims emotionally invested and engaged. By leaving loose ends or promising future interactions, they exploit the Zeigarnik Effect, leading victims to dwell on these unfinished conversations or promises and seek closure.
  • Maintaining Emotional Attachment: Scammers cultivate a sense of emotional attachment and dependency in their victims by leveraging the Zeigarnik Effect. Through intermittent reinforcement and sporadic communication, they create a cycle of anticipation and reward, triggering the Zeigarnik Effect and reinforcing the victim’s emotional connection to the scammer. This is not the only reason for these, but it has an effect here too.
  • Initiating Obsessive Thoughts: Scammers capitalize on the Zeigarnik Effect (usually unknowingly) to induce obsessive thoughts and rumination in their victims. By strategically withholding information or providing cryptic messages, they keep victims guessing and preoccupied with thoughts of the scammer, amplifying their emotional investment and vulnerability.
  • Exploiting Cognitive Dissonance: The Zeigarnik Effect exacerbates cognitive dissonance in victims who may experience conflicting thoughts and emotions about the scammer and the authenticity of the relationship, or if it is an abusive relationship. Scammers manipulate this psychological tension by alternating between affectionate gestures and deceptive behavior, fueling the victim’s internal struggle and reinforcing their dependence on the scammer for resolution.
  • Facilitating Control and Manipulation: By exploiting the Zeigarnik Effect (as just one of their many manipulative techniques,) scammers exert control over their victims’ thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. They strategically deploy tactics such as love bombing, gaslighting, and guilt-tripping to deepen the Zeigarnik Effect’s impact, ensuring that victims remain psychologically bound to the scammer and compliant with their demands.

This effect serves as a potent tool for scammers to manipulate and control their victims in relationship scams, even though they have probably never heard of it. By exploiting victims’ innate desire for closure and resolution, scammers foster emotional attachment, induce obsessive thoughts, exacerbate cognitive dissonance, and facilitate psychological control, ultimately perpetuating the deception and exploitation for their own gain.

Zeigarnik Effect: After the Relationship Scam – Connection to Obsessive Thinking or ‘Over Thinking’

The Zeigarnik Effect can contribute to obsessive behavior and overthinking too.

When individuals experience the Zeigarnik Effect they tend to maintain a heightened level of cognitive arousal or tension related to unfinished tasks or unresolved situations. This persistent state of mental preoccupation can lead to obsessive thoughts and rumination, where individuals repeatedly dwell on an incomplete task or goal.

For example, someone who has been scammed may continuously ruminate on the events surrounding the scam, replaying conversations or interactions with the scammer in their mind. They may also obsessively seek closure or resolution to the situation, despite the lack of control or ability to change the outcome.

Additionally, the Zeigarnik Effect can contribute to a phenomenon known as the “Zeigarnik Loop,” where individuals become trapped in a cycle of intrusive thoughts and compulsive behaviors aimed at resolving the unfinished task or achieving closure. This loop can perpetuate obsessive tendencies and lead to excessive worry, anxiety, and stress.

In the context of scam victims, the Zeigarnik Effect may manifest as persistent feelings of betrayal, anger, or vulnerability, as individuals struggle to come to terms with the deception and regain a sense of control over their circumstances. This ongoing preoccupation with the scam and its consequences can exacerbate feelings of distress and contribute to obsessive or overthinking behaviors.

Overall, while the Zeigarnik Effect serves an adaptive function in promoting task completion and problem-solving, it can also contribute to maladaptive patterns of thought and behavior when individuals become excessively focused on unresolved tasks or situations, leading to obsessive tendencies and overthinking.

Zeigarnik Effect: After the Relationship Scam – Relating to Scam Victims & Recovery

Now, how does this cognitive bias relate to the experiences of scam victims, particularly in the context of perceiving the face of the scammer everywhere they go? To understand this connection, we must delve into the aftermath of falling victim to a scam—an experience fraught with deception, betrayal, and shattered trust.

The Zeigarnik Effect can profoundly impact scam victims, exacerbating their distress and perpetuating a cycle of intrusive thoughts and emotional turmoil.

Following a scam, victims often experience a persistent preoccupation with unresolved questions, such as how they fell victim, why they trusted the scammer, or how to recover their losses. This ongoing mental fixation can lead to obsessive rumination, where victims repeatedly replay the events of the scam in their minds, searching for answers or closure.

Additionally, the Zeigarnik Effect may drive victims to engage in compulsive behaviors aimed at regaining control or rectifying the situation, such as incessantly checking bank accounts or seeking revenge against the scammer.

Despite their best efforts, victims may find it challenging to disengage from these intrusive thoughts and behaviors, further exacerbating their emotional distress and hindering their ability to move forward. Thus, while the Zeigarnik Effect is a natural cognitive phenomenon designed to promote task completion, its persistence in the aftermath of a scam can contribute to heightened anxiety, stress, and overthinking among victims, prolonging their recovery process and impeding their ability to rebuild trust and confidence.

Zeigarnik Effect: After the Relationship Scam – Trauma

For scam victims, the trauma of being deceived often leaves a profound imprint on their psyche, triggering a cascade of emotions ranging from anger and resentment to shame and self-blame. Even after the scam has been uncovered and the perpetrator identified, the psychological scars linger, manifesting in subtle yet profound ways.

In this vulnerable state, the Zeigarnik Effect can exert a powerful influence, magnifying the victim’s preoccupation with the scam and the individual responsible for perpetrating it. The unresolved nature of the experience—coupled with the perpetrator’s elusiveness and the victim’s desire for closure—creates a perfect storm of cognitive tension, fueling a relentless pursuit of resolution.

As a result, scam victims may find themselves fixated on the scam itself or on the face of the perpetrator, seeing echoes of their tormentor in the faces of strangers, acquaintances, and even loved ones. This perceptual phenomenon, fueled by the Zeigarnik Effect, serves as a constant reminder of the trauma endured—a persistent presence that refuses to fade into the recesses of memory.

Additionally, this effect can lead to frenzied or obsessive needs to resolve the fallout from the scam.

The Zeigarnik Effect may exacerbate feelings of vulnerability and helplessness, amplifying the victim’s sense of being trapped in a state of perpetual unrest. Despite their best efforts to move on from the scam and reclaim their sense of security, the unfinished nature of the experience continues to haunt them, casting a shadow over their daily lives.

Zeigarnik Effect: Phishing Scams

The Zeigarnik Effect can contribute to impulsive actions in phishing scams by exploiting individuals’ innate drive to seek closure and resolution.

Here’s how that works:

  1. Creating a Sense of Urgency: Phishing emails often employ tactics that trigger the Zeigarnik Effect by creating a sense of urgency or importance. For example, an email may claim that the recipient’s account is compromised and requires immediate action to prevent further damage. This sense of urgency compels individuals to act quickly without thoroughly evaluating the authenticity of the email.
  2. Triggering Curiosity: Phishing emails may contain intriguing or alarming subject lines that pique the recipient’s curiosity, triggering the Zeigarnik Effect. Individuals may feel compelled to open the email to satisfy their curiosity and learn more about the purported issue or offer presented in the message.
  3. Offering Incomplete Information: Phishing emails often provide incomplete or ambiguous information, leaving recipients with unanswered questions or unresolved concerns. This incomplete information triggers the Zeigarnik Effect, prompting individuals to engage further with the email or click on embedded links to seek clarification or closure.
  4. Exploiting Emotional Triggers: Phishing scams may leverage emotional triggers such as fear, excitement, or curiosity to intensify the Zeigarnik Effect and prompt impulsive actions. For example, an email claiming that the recipient has won a prize or is at risk of legal action exploits the recipient’s emotional response, leading them to take immediate action without critical evaluation.
  5. Encouraging Impulsive Clicking: Phishing emails often include hyperlinks or buttons prompting recipients to click for more information or to take action. The Zeigarnik Effect increases the likelihood that individuals will impulsively click on these links or buttons in an attempt to resolve their curiosity or address perceived concerns, without considering the potential risks.

Overall, the Zeigarnik Effect contributes to impulsive actions in phishing scams by exploiting individuals’ innate psychological tendencies to seek closure, resolve unanswered questions, and satisfy curiosity. By triggering these cognitive processes, phishing emails effectively manipulate recipients into taking hasty and ill-informed actions that may result in falling victim to the scam.

The Zeigarnik Effect: Contributing to Other Negative Outcomes in Life

The Zeigarnik Effect, while often associated with its role in memory and task completion, can contribute to various challenges and negative outcomes in our lives:

  • Procrastination: The Zeigarnik Effect can lead to procrastination when individuals experience intrusive thoughts about unfinished tasks or goals. Instead of focusing on current responsibilities, they may become preoccupied with incomplete tasks, delaying progress on important activities. This can also lead to anxiety which can make it worse.
  • Stress and Anxiety: Unresolved tasks or goals can generate stress and anxiety as individuals feel pressure to complete them. The persistent thoughts associated with the Zeigarnik Effect may contribute to heightened levels of stress, especially when coupled with deadlines or expectations from others.
  • Obsessive Thoughts: The Zeigarnik Effect may fuel obsessive thoughts about past events, unresolved conflicts, or unfulfilled desires. Individuals may find themselves repeatedly dwelling on these thoughts, leading to rumination and difficulty in letting go of the past. This can also have an effect on processing grief.
  • Decision Paralysis: When faced with numerous unresolved options or decisions, the Zeigarnik Effect can exacerbate decision paralysis. Intrusive thoughts about the unchosen alternatives may prevent individuals from committing to a decision, fearing they may miss out on better opportunities.
  • Relationship Strain: In interpersonal relationships, the Zeigarnik Effect can contribute to tension and conflict when unresolved issues persist. Intrusive thoughts about past disagreements or unmet expectations may hinder communication and forgiveness, leading to strained relationships.
  • Perfectionism: The Zeigarnik Effect may fuel perfectionistic tendencies, as individuals strive for flawless task completion to alleviate the discomfort associated with unfinished business. This pursuit of perfection can be detrimental to mental well-being and hinder productivity.
  • Impulsive Behavior: In some cases, the Zeigarnik Effect may lead to impulsive behavior as individuals seek to resolve intrusive thoughts and achieve closure quickly. This impulsivity can result in rash decision-making or actions that have negative consequences.

While the Zeigarnik Effect serves a beneficial role in memory and motivation, its influence can extend to various aspects of life, contributing to stress, anxiety, interpersonal conflicts, and decision-making challenges. Recognizing the impact of the Zeigarnik Effect can help individuals develop strategies to manage intrusive thoughts, prioritize tasks, and promote overall well-being.

In effect, the Zeigarnik Effect is one of the most fundamental cognitive biases that most have never heard of!

Overcoming the Zeigarnik Effect

Overcoming the Zeigarnik Effect, especially for scam victims, requires a multifaceted approach aimed at addressing both the cognitive and emotional aspects of the experience. Here are some techniques that may help:

  • Mindfulness and Grounding Techniques: Practice mindfulness to become more aware of your thoughts and feelings without judgment. Grounding techniques, such as deep breathing or focusing on sensory experiences, can help bring you back to the present moment and reduce intrusive thoughts about the scam.
  • Limit Exposure to Triggers: Identify triggers that prompt intrusive thoughts about the scam, such as specific websites, emails, or places associated with the scammer. Limiting exposure to these triggers can help reduce the frequency and intensity of intrusive thoughts.
  • Cognitive Restructuring: Challenge negative or irrational thoughts related to the scam by examining evidence that supports or refutes them. Replace distorted thoughts with more balanced and realistic perspectives to reduce anxiety and overthinking.
  • Set Boundaries: Establish boundaries to protect yourself from further harm, whether it’s limiting communication with the scammer, blocking their emails or phone numbers, or avoiding situations where you may be vulnerable to scams.
  • Seek Support: Reach out to trusted friends, family members, or support groups who can provide empathy, validation, and encouragement. Talking about your experience with others who understand can help alleviate feelings of isolation and shame.
  • Engage in Positive Activities: Focus on activities that bring you joy, fulfillment, and a sense of purpose. Engaging in hobbies, spending time with loved ones, or volunteering can distract you from intrusive thoughts and promote emotional healing.
  • Professional Help: Consider seeking support from a therapist or counselor who specializes in trauma recovery or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Therapy can provide you with coping strategies, emotional support, and a safe space to process your experience and work through unresolved feelings.
  • Practice Self-Compassion: Be gentle and patient with yourself as you navigate the recovery process. Recognize that healing takes time and that it’s okay to seek help when needed. Practice self-care and self-compassion to nurture your emotional well-being and cultivate resilience in the face of adversity.

By trying these techniques and strategies, scam survivors can gradually diminish the impact of the Zeigarnik Effect, and other cognitive biases, and regain a sense of control, peace, and empowerment in their life after experiencing a scam.

Recognition & Control of the Zeigarnik Effect

It is very important to recognize that what scam victims feel is valid, and normal, though it may not be healthy or helpful. This is why it is so important to be evaluated by a psychologist specializing in psychological trauma.

Also, awareness of the Zeigarnik Effect can empower scam victims to take proactive steps toward healing and restoration. By acknowledging the cognitive biases at play and understanding their impact on perception and behavior, especially during recovery, individual survivors can begin to reclaim agency over their thoughts and emotions.

One effective strategy for mitigating the effects of the Zeigarnik Effect is through mindfulness and self-compassion practices. By cultivating present-moment awareness and adopting a compassionate attitude toward oneself, scam victims can gradually release the grip of unresolved experiences and embrace a path of healing and renewal.


In conclusion, the Zeigarnik Effect offers a compelling lens through which to understand the experiences of scam victims and the perceptual and cognitive phenomena they often encounter in the aftermath of deception and betrayal.

By acknowledging the role of cognitive biases in shaping our perceptions and behaviors, individuals can begin to unravel the complexities of their experiences and embark on a journey toward healing, resilience, and self-discovery.

Statement About Victim Blaming

Some of our articles discuss various aspects of victims. This is both about better understanding victims (the science of victimology) and their behaviors and psychology. This helps us to educate victims/survivors about why these crimes happened and to not blame themselves, better develop recovery programs, and to help victims avoid scams in the future. At times this may sound like blaming the victim, but it does not blame scam victims, we are simply explaining the hows and whys of the experience victims have.

These articles, about the Psychology of Scams or Victim Psychology – meaning that all humans have psychological or cognitive characteristics in common that can either be exploited or work against us – help us all to understand the unique challenges victims face before, during, and after scams, fraud, or cybercrimes. These sometimes talk about some of the vulnerabilities the scammers exploit. Victims rarely have control of them or are even aware of them, until something like a scam happens and then they can learn how their mind works and how to overcome these mechanisms.

Articles like these help victims and others understand these processes and how to help prevent them from being exploited again or to help them recover more easily by understanding their post-scam behaviors. Learn more about the Psychology of Scams at

Important Information for New Scam Victims

SCARS Resources:

Psychology Disclaimer:

All articles about psychology and the human brain on this website are for information & education only

The information provided in this and other SCARS articles are intended for educational and self-help purposes only and should not be construed as a substitute for professional therapy or counseling.

Note about Mindfulness: Mindfulness practices have the potential to create psychological distress for some individuals. Please consult a mental health professional or experienced meditation instructor for guidance should you encounter difficulties.

While any self-help techniques outlined herein may be beneficial for scam victims seeking to recover from their experience and move towards recovery, it is important to consult with a qualified mental health professional before initiating any course of action. Each individual’s experience and needs are unique, and what works for one person may not be suitable for another.

Additionally, any approach may not be appropriate for individuals with certain pre-existing mental health conditions or trauma histories. It is advisable to seek guidance from a licensed therapist or counselor who can provide personalized support, guidance, and treatment tailored to your specific needs.

If you are experiencing significant distress or emotional difficulties related to a scam or other traumatic event, please consult your doctor or mental health provider for appropriate care and support.

If you are in crisis, feeling desperate, or in despair please call 988 or your local crisis hotline.

PLEASE NOTE: Psychology Clarification

The following specific modalities within the practice of psychology are restricted to psychologists appropriately trained in the use of such modalities:

  • Diagnosis: The diagnosis of mental, emotional, or brain disorders and related behaviors.
  • Psychoanalysis: Psychoanalysis is a type of therapy that focuses on helping individuals to understand and resolve unconscious conflicts.
  • Hypnosis: Hypnosis is a state of trance in which individuals are more susceptible to suggestion. It can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including anxiety, depression, and pain.
  • Biofeedback: Biofeedback is a type of therapy that teaches individuals to control their bodily functions, such as heart rate and blood pressure. It can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including stress, anxiety, and pain.
  • Behavioral analysis: Behavioral analysis is a type of therapy that focuses on changing individuals’ behaviors. It is often used to treat conditions such as autism and ADHD.
    Neuropsychology: Neuropsychology is a type of psychology that focuses on the relationship between the brain and behavior. It is often used to assess and treat cognitive impairments caused by brain injuries or diseases.

SCARS and the members of the SCARS Team do not engage in any of the above modalities in relationship to scam victims. SCARS is not a mental healthcare provider and recognizes the importance of professionalism and separation between its work and that of the licensed practice of psychology.

SCARS is an educational provider of generalized self-help information that individuals can use for their own benefit to achieve their own goals related to emotional trauma. SCARS recommends that all scam victims see professional counselors or therapists to help them determine the suitability of any specific information or practices that may help them.

SCARS cannot diagnose or treat any individuals, nor can it state the effectiveness of any educational information that it may provide, regardless of its experience in interacting with traumatized scam victims over time. All information that SCARS provides is purely for general educational purposes to help scam victims become aware of and better understand the topics and to be able to dialog with their counselors or therapists.

It is important that all readers understand these distinctions and that they apply the information that SCARS may publish at their own risk, and should do so only after consulting a licensed psychologist or mental healthcare provider.


The opinions of the author are not necessarily those of the Society of Citizens Against Rleationship Scams Inc. The author is solely responsible for the content of their work. SCARS is protected under the Communications Decency Act (CDA) section 230 from liability.







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